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知识桑拿

知识创造的芬兰经验

人力资源潜力第一 (Human Capital Report 2016)
学生学习效率第一 (PISA 2015)
繁荣要素之教育第一 (Legatum Prosperity Index 2018)
未来能力教育第一 (Worldwide Educating for the Future Index 2018)
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一长串各种全球指数的第一名显示了芬兰教育的高质量,这后面有很多成功的因素。 我们在此专注的,是实现21世纪能力——例如芬兰国家教育大纲中的思考和学会学习的能力;美国等国家的P21框架中的学习和创新技能;世界经济论坛教育新愿景框架中的批判性思维、创造力、沟通和协作能力等——教育目标很重要的探究式学习和知识创造的芬兰经验。

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学习的知识创造隐喻

知识创造隐喻(knowledge creation metaphor) (Paavola et al. 2002, 2004; Hakkarainen et al. 2004) 是第三种重要的学习隐喻,在现代社会中正变得越来越重要(曾文婕 柳熙 2013)。另外两种是获得隐喻(acquisition metaphor)和参与隐喻(participation metaphor),Anna Sfard (1998) 给出了区分。

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芬兰赫尔辛基大学的研究者们提出了”三元“(‘trialogical’ or ‘trialogic’)交互学习的概念,用以描述人们一起协作和系统地开发共享的,具体的“客体”(“objects”)的过程(Paavola & Hakkarainen 2005; Lakkala et al 2009; 刘大军 黄甫全 2015)。
三元交互学习的起源和基础包括不同的创新知识共同体模型,比如恩格斯托姆(Engeström,Y.)提出的拓展性学习(expansive learning)(Engeström 1987), 加拿大贝莱特尔(Bereiters)的知识建造(knowledge building)(Scardamalia & Bereiter 1994; Bereiter 2002) 和日本野中郁次郎(Nonaka) 和竹内弘高(Takeuchi)的组织化的知识创造(organizational knowledge creation)。
学习的知识创造隐喻和三元交互式学习是 KP-Lab project 的重要理论基础。这是一个欧盟资助的项目,由赫尔辛基大学协调来自14个国家的22个机构共同完成。项目致力于研究在专业和教育环境中的学习实践,并开发工具以支持知识分享、创造的创新实践。

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渐进探究 (PI-模型)

基于Kai Hakkarainen的博士论文及其他研究成果,赫尔辛基大学网络学习和知识建构研究中心(Centre for Research on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building)开发了渐进式探究学习(progressive inquiry learning )的教学模型(PI 模型)。该模型旨在促进深入的探究过程和开展专家式的知识性工作,这些知识对富有成效地参与知识社会至关重要。该模型已经和继续在各种学校(Lipponen, 2000; Lonka Hakkarainen & Matti Sintonen 2000; Hakkarainen Bollström-Huttunen & Pyysalo 2003; Lakkala et al., 2005; Lakkala et al., 2007),其他类型的高等院校和教育机构(Lakkala et al., 2008; Muukkonen et al., 2005)以及工作场合中实施,测试和开发。

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渐进探究的教学思想可以应用在传统教育环境的课堂中,但他主要还是计算机支持的协作学习( Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL))而设计的。
CSCL的一个先锋实现是Scardamalia和Bereiter (1994)开发的Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE/Knowledge Forum)。它是在教育领域实现技术支持的协作的著名例子。
自1998年起,未来学习环境(the Future Learning Environment (FLE))工具由Tekes - 芬兰国家技术创新局资助开发。该项目的参与方包括赫尔辛基艺术和设计大学(后并入阿尔托大学)媒体实验室(协调人),赫尔辛基大学网络学习和知识建构研究中心,芬兰教育部,芬兰新媒体公司Grey Interactive,芬兰电信运营商Sonera和芬兰教育出版社Sanoma WSOY。直到2015年,作为北欧理事会和欧盟的项目,在阿尔托大学媒体实验室的协调下,前后四代FLE软件完成开发(Leinonen & Muukkonen 1998; Leinonen, Kligyte, et.all 2003)。它被翻译成包括欧洲大部分语言和中文在内的二十多种语言,在各大洲的七十多个国家获得应用。
相较CSILE/Knowledge Forum,后者根植于课堂教学软件所以包含了复杂的内容编辑功能,FLE更简单灵活,更容易应用在涵盖终生学习的各种教育场景中。

参考文献

Paavola, S., Lipponen, L. & Hakkarainen, K. (2002) Epistemological Foundations for CSCL: A Comparison of Three Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities. In Gerry Stahl (ed.) Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Foundations for a CSCL Community, Proceedings of: CSCL 2002 (January 7-11, 2002, Boulder, Colorado, USA). Distributed by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hilldale, New Jersey, USA.

Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities and Three Metaphors of Learning. Review of Educational Research 74(4), 557-576.

Hakkarainen, K., Palonen, T., Paavola, S. & Lehtinen, E. (2004) Communities of networked expertise: Professional and educational perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

曾文婕 柳熙 (2013) 获得·参与·知识创造——论人类学习的三大隐喻,教育研究 2013年第7期.

Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4–13.

Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2009). From meaning making to joint construction of knowledge practices and artefacts – A trialogical approach to CSCL. In C. O'Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Practices: CSCL2009 Conference Proceedings. (pp. 83-92). Rhodes, Creek: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) (draft available online).

Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). The Knowledge Creation Metaphor – An Emergent Epistemological Approach to Learning. Science & Education 14(6), 535-557 (draft available online).

Lakkala, M., Paavola, S., Kosonen, K., Muukkonen, H., Bauters, M., & Markkanen, H. (2009). Main functionalities of the Knowledge Practices Environment (KPE) affording knowledge creation practices in education. In C. O'Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Practices: CSCL2009 Conference Proceedings (pp. 297-306). Rhodes, Creek: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) (draft available online).

刘大军 黄甫全 (2015) 知识创造视野中的三元交互学习, 现代远程教育研究 2015年第4期.

Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit.

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 265–283.

Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Lonka, K., Hakkarainen, K., & Sintonen, M. (2000) Progressive inquiry learning for children –experiences, possibilities, limitations. European Early Childhood Education Association Journal,8, 7 -23.

Hakkarainen, K., Bollström-Huttunen, M., Pyysalo, R. (2003, April). From project learning to progressive inquiry. A poster presented at a symposium on title "International Design Principles for Knowledge Building: Innovative Learning processes in Knowledge-rich Interactive Environments", the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA.

Lipponen, L. (2000). Towards knowledge-building discourse: From facts to explanations in primary students' computer mediated discourse. Learning Environments Research, 3, 179–199.

Lakkala, M., Lallimo, J. and Hakkarainen, K. (2005) Teachers’ pedagogical designs for technology-supported collective inquiry: A national case study. Computers & Education, 45, 337–356. Available online

Lakkala, M., Ilomäki, L., & Palonen, T. (2007). Implementing virtual, collaborative inquiry practices in a middle school context. Behaviour & Information Technology, 26(1), 37–53. Available online

Lakkala, M., Muukkonen, H., Paavola, S., & Hakkarainen, K. (2008). Designing pedagogical infrastructures in university courses for technology-enhanced collaborative inquiry. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(1), 33-64. Available online

Muukkonen, Hanni & Lakkala, Minna & Hakkarainen, Kai. (2005). Technology-Mediated Progressive Inquiry in Higher Education

Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., and Lipponen, L. (1999). Tutkivaoppiminen: älykkään toiminnat rajat ja niiden ylittäminen [Progressive Inquiry: Overcoming Limitations of Human Intelligent Activity] (in Finnish). Helsinki: WSOY.

Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Ilomäki, L, Järvelä, S., Lakkala, M., Muukkonen, H., Rahikainen, M. & Lehtinen, E. (1999). Tieto- ja viestintätekniikka tutkivan oppimisen välineenä [Information and communication technology as a tool in progressive inquiry]. Helsingin kaupungin opetusvirasto. Helsinki: Multiprint.

Muukkonen, H., Hakkarainen, K. & Lakkala, M. (1999) Collaborative Technology for Facilitating Progressive Inquiry: The Future Learning Environment Tools. In C. Hoadley & J. Roschelle (Eds.) The proceedings of the CSCL ’99 conference, December 12-15, 1999, Palo Alto, pp. 406-415. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

Leinonen, T. & Muukkonen, H (1998). Future Learning Environment – Innovative Methods and Applications for Collaborative Learning. Arttu Magazine. Taideteollinen korkeakoulu 1998.

Leinonen, T., Kligyte, G. et.all (2003). Learning with Collaborative Software – A guide to Fle3. Helsinki, Taideteollinen korkeakoulu 2003. ISBN 951-558-127-3. Translated to Italian and Spanish.

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